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Y’all Can Kill That Mockingbird Now

To_Kill_a_Mockingbird2,446 words

One of these days Harper Lee is going to kick off and have great big posthumous laugh at our expense. Bwah-hah-hah! Because right there in her Last Notes and Testament, we will find an answer to that puzzlement that has troubled the publishing biz for a half-century or more.

Namely, why didn’t Harper Lee write any more novels after To Kill a Mockingbird?

And the main reason she didn’t, she will aver in words that are coarse and pithy, is that To Kill a Mockingbird was a phoney-baloney contrived piece of fluff. It wasn’t her novel anymore, not after her agent and editors got through tarting it up, to make it modern and popular and sellable. They mutilated her baby, and young Nelle Harper Lee didn’t have the heart to go through that again.

Popular and sellable it certainly was. It was on the bestseller list for about two years, and thanks to the sponsorship of Gregory Peck it became a guaranteed hit movie even before a screenplay was written.

And it was modern. By laying on themes of racial strife and civil rights, and deleting most references to Thirties pop culture, the publishers made the novel as up-to-date and relevant as the latest issue of Look magazine. The book contains some vague references to the New Deal, and a courtroom trial is said to be happening in 1935; officially we’re in the mid-30s for most of the action. But otherwise the setting might as well be the Deep South of the 1950s and even 60s.

fdr-time-1935-227x300It’s a very peculiar 1930s Alabama that the author conjures up. She doesn’t tell us about seeing Popeye or Shirley Temple or Clark Gable down at the picture show, or reading Beatrice Fairfax or Fontaine Fox in the Mobile Register. In fact, no news at all leaks in from the outside world via radio, cinema, magazines or newspapers. Not a word of Huey Long, the Dust Bowl, Dillinger, League of Nations, Abyssinia, Spain. We are told that our narrator, “Scout,” has been reading since infancy, but she doesn’t seem to read much, not even the Time magazine that her family supposedly gets. International events intrude exactly once, in a painful, smarmy passage in which Scout’s third-grade teacher lectures the class about—what do you suppose?—Hitler and the Jews! (Perhaps the teacher does read Time.)

The published novel is very different from Lee’s original typescript. That was a set of loosely linked stories about long summers and oddball neighbors in small-town Alabama. Many of these episodes and character studies are retained in the final product, and they are small, perfect jewels—Boo Radley, the mad recluse; Dill, the narcissistic “pocket Merlin”; Mrs. Dubose, the raging, morphine-addicted Civil War widow; Scout’s snobbish, self-centered cousins who live down on Finch’s Landing.

he novel anticipated the media depiction of the Deep South in the 1960s, and very likely influenced it. Above, the iconic photograph of Sheriff Rainey of Neshoba County, Mississippi, from a December 1964 issue of Life.

The novel anticipated the media depiction of the Deep South in the 1960s, and very likely influenced it. Above, the iconic photograph of Sheriff Rainey of Neshoba County, Mississippi, from a December 1964 issue of Life.

This authentic nostalgia is the To Kill a Mockingbird that people fell in love with. However, while these tales still occupy two-thirds of the published book, none of them had sufficient drive or development to carry a major plot. And they were not quite serious, grown-up fiction. “I think for a child’s book it does all right,” Flannery O’Connor wrote a friend around the time the novel won the Pulitzer Prize. And indeed it always has been basically a kiddie story, except for one racy subplot that Lee’s editors grafted onto it. That is the interracial-rape case that dominates much of the second half of the book. Curiously, people who never read the novel, or who mainly remember the Gregory Peck movie, often imagine that this criminal case is the central story, even though it takes up little more than a quarter of the book. (Note: In my HarperPerennial paperback edition of 323 pages, the trial and related events begin at page 164 and end on 259.)

The rape plot is hokum, but the editors and agent who forced it upon Lee knew what they were doing: it ties together many of Lee’s plot strands and characters, and it bumps her wistful recollections up to the grown-up shelf, repositioning it as middlebrow fiction with contemporary (1960) social relevance.

Tastes change. Today the rape plot is laughable, mawkish, stuffed with symbolism. The accused Negro, Tom Robinson, has a withered right arm that got mangled years ago when it got caught in a cotton gin. The rapee, Miss Mayella Ewell, comes from a family who are not merely poor white trash from the wrong edge of town, they seem to be illiterate as well. Her father is a murderous drunk, possibly incestuous, who survives by poaching. Her brother Burris is crawling with lice. They are so awful, the story tips over into kind of Tobacco Road black-comedy whenever a Ewell appears. (Thankfully Mayella does not have a harelip.)

Who was the real Tom Robinson?

There is a notion prevalent among some schoolteachers and media writers that the Tom Robinson case was loosely based on similar cases in the Deep South during the 1930s. This stems from the vague impression that thousands, or at least hundreds, of innocent negroes were prosecuted and lynched during this era because of White Supremacism and the Ku Klux Klan, and all that nasty bother. According to this school of thinking, Tom Robinson is a composite victim of race prejudice.

In reality there were very few cases like this. The only notable one in the Deep South that involved interracial fornication with a member of the po-white-trash set was the so-called Scottsboro Boys case. In this saga, we have two young white women who get caught riding railroad boxcars while dressed in overalls. They tell the police they were raped by a gang of black youths also aboard the train. In a protracted series of trials, several of the black youths are convicted of rape and sentenced to long prison terms.

The case was highly publicized in the 1930s, and has never faded from media consciousness, providing fodder in recent years for books, documentaries, and even a Broadway musical. Today the Scottsboro Boys are often spoken of as innocents, martyrs to bigotry and the backward, violent South. The story is put about that the two young women were not only low-class, they were casual prostitutes, and probably deserved what they got, if they really were gang-raped; and anyway, their word shouldn’t be trusted. It’s all their fault.

scottsboro-musicalScottsboro is frequently cited as the basic template for the rape case in To Kill a Mockingbird.  But the resemblance is superficial at best. None of the Scottsboro Boys were hardworking, crippled, husband-and-fathers. In TKAM, nobody suggests Miss Mayella Ewell is a prostitute, or that she deserves to be sexually abused.

The Emmett Till Era

If he wasn’t a Scottsboro Boy, who else could Tom Robinson be? How’s about Emmett Till? This is a theory that scholar-critic Patrick Chura came up with in his penetrating analysis of the novel (Southern Literary Journal, Spring 2000). Chura began by pointing out that the novel has a poor grasp on Thirties history. The WPA shows up two years before the agency was created. And the book’s social attitudes don’t reflect the 1930s at all, rather they seem to echo preoccupations of the 1950s.

Chura rejects the whole Scottsboro theory and says the real prototype for the TKAM rape case was the story of Emmett Till. Emmett Till was a husky, 14-going-on-15 black youth from Chicago who went down to visit his cousins in rural Mississippi in 1955. He made a sexual approach to the young white proprietess of a country store. A couple of nights afterwards Till was beaten to death by the woman’s husband and brother-in-law because he wouldn’t apologize for his behavior.

Chura finds some minor parallels between the two cases. Robinson and Till are both slightly disabled (a withered arm, a stutter), the poor whites are first championed by neighbors, then ostracized because of shame and notoriety. And the trial judges and the press clearly sympathize with the cause of the unfortunate Negroes. But the argument doesn’t quite make it. The comparisons are just too strained. Having a stutter is not comparable to having a mangled, useless arm. And the basic narrative of Till case is just too different from the novel’s. The novel’s Tom Robinson is passive and meek. Emmett Till was a big-boy showoff from Chicago who went around bragging that he had a white girlfriend. Even his Mississippi cousins thought he was obnoxious and hoped for his comeuppance.

Nevertheless Chura correctly nails the 1950s Zeitgeist of the novel. So it is most peculiar that he overlooks the most notable interracial rape case of the era, that of Willie McGee. As a news story this went on for ten years (1945-1955). It got headlines, was a leftist and Civil Rights rallying point, and it closely parallels the rape story in To Kill a Mockingbird.

Me and Willie McGee

Jessica Mitford and poster, during the CPUSA campaign to protest McGee’s execution. “His ‘crime’ — he’s a Negro.” This sloganeering found echoes in the published version of To Kill a Mockingbird.

Jessica Mitford and poster, during the CPUSA campaign to protest McGee’s execution. “His ‘crime’ — he’s a Negro.” This sloganeering found echoes in the published version of To Kill a Mockingbird.

McGee was a black man convicted of raping a (young, attractive, middle-class) white woman in Mississippi in 1945. His lawyers repeatedly appealed, and the appeals were shot down. The case reached a crescendo around 1950, when McGee was due for the electric chair. After a postponement, he was finally executed in May 1951.

The Willie McGee case was a pet cause of the Communist Party USA, through a front organization called the Civil Rights Congress. Now, the CPUSA had been taking a real public-relations beating since about 1945, thanks to Soviet atrocities, the enslavement of eastern Europe, the loss of China, the Alger Hiss case, etc., etc. So now the Party was trying to reposition itself as a kind of charitable, public-spirited organization: a progressive force in favor of Civil Rights and Justice for the Negro. And Willie McGee was an ideal poster child.

In early 1951, as the execution date grew nearer, the Communists came up with a clever retelling of the McGee tale. It was not a simple interracial rape case, they claimed. Willie did not rape that white woman, Mrs. Willette Hawkins; actually Mrs. Hawkins and McGee had been lovers for years! Then Willie wanted to break it off, so the white woman shouted rape to punish him.

Thus sprach the Daily Worker, the CPUSA newspaper. It was a pretty dubious tale to begin with. The McGee case had been going through appeals for five years, yet somehow no one had ever mentioned this long-term “romance” before. But McGee’s new defense team had a wonderfully daffy explanation for this omission: it seems Willie’s original lawyers kept the affair hidden because they thought it would hurt the case, this being Mississippi. (Those all-white juries, you know, with their prejudiced attitudes and all: they might give our Willie something even worse than the electric chair!)

The Party even trotted out a colored woman named Rosalee to tour the country in their dog-and-pony show, telling the world that she was Willie McGee’s wife (she wasn’t) and denouncing Mrs. Hawkins as the white-trash slattern who “raped my husband.”

The Daily Worker kept burnishing its fictional tale of Willie’s romantic entanglement even after he went to the chair. By this point Mrs. Hawkins had heard about it and sued for libel. Finally, in 1955, the Commies admitted they had no evidence. They’d made the whole thing up. The Daily Worker printed retractions and paid a small award for damages.

By that point the Party didn’t care. Willie McGee was long dead, and the story had served its purpose. It had made Willie into a martyr to race prejudice (something we must fight, comrade). Long after most people forgot the details of the case, they’d remember vaguely that Willie McGee was possibly innocent, and executed in a legal lynching.

Because that’s how propaganda works. People don’t remember the logical integrity of arguments. What lingers is the emotional impression. It didn’t matter in the long run whether Willie McGee was guilty or innocent, so long as those “progressive” people who fought for him (e.g., future Congresswoman Bella Abzug) appeared to be on the side of truth and justice.

And there you have it. The tale of Willie McGee, as told in the Daily Worker, was the template for Tom Robinson.

A Parthian Shot

Now, this brings us to Harper Lee’s other big secret about To Kill a Mockingbird. Besides asking why she didn’t write another novel, people routinely asked her which particular racial case of the Deep South she based her rape case upon. She gave vague, dismissive answers, implying that it was a composite of several cases. She never identified any specific case, and no one ever thought to ask her about Willie McGee. After all, McGee was from the 1940s and 50s, not 30s; and anyway, McGee was probably guilty. Therefore, so was the fictional Tom.

And there are even worse complications. If you say Tom Robinson is guilty, then that wise paterfamilias Atticus Finch emerges as one very sleazy lawyer. He does not merely provide competent defense for Tom Robinson, he gratuitously defames the poor girl Mayella Ewell. With no real evidence at hand, he weaves a tale in which she lusted after a crippled black man, and seduced him into fornication. It’s a hair-raising, lurid tale, but it is completely unnecessary. As a fictional device it symbolically shifts the guilt from Tom Robinson to Mayella, but it adds nothing to Tom’s defense case. The jury and townspeople are not really concerned with the issue of consensual vs forcible sex, or whether this person lusted after that one. The two givens in the case are that penetration took place, and that it was interracial. For the men in the jury box, that last bit is the real offense.

Atticus knows they’re not going to acquit his client, so he makes up an unpleasant tale about Mayella, all the while feigning pity for the pathetic lass. But it’s all invention and false sentiment, just like the fantasies that the Daily Worker conjured up about Willette Hawkins and Willie McGee.


Patrick Chura compares novel to the Emmett Till saga in the Southern Literary Journal.

Alex Heard, author of The Eyes of Willie McGeeblogs about the McGee case.

Washington Post review 2010.

Notes on Bella Abzug and the Civil Rights Congress.

Mockingbird: A Portrait of Harper Lee, by Charles J. Shields, 2006, is particularly good on the shaping of the TKAM phenomenon, both book and movie.



  1. soren
    Posted September 24, 2014 at 1:42 am | Permalink

    This is somewhat tangential, but Emmett Till’s father was hung in Italy after being charged with the rape of two women and the murder of another. He was imprisoned with Ezra Pound and Till is alluded to in the Pisan Cantos:

    “Till was hung yesterday
    for murder and rape with trimmings”

  2. PTX
    Posted September 24, 2014 at 4:03 am | Permalink

    This is a very well written article and it confirms what I had suspected about the ham-handed plot device of the innocent black man being falsely convicted of rape. I had no idea that Lee was pretty much forced to shoehorn this narrative in, but it makes more sense now that I think about it.

    I was also unaware of this Willie McGee case, but of course those scumbags in the CPUSA, who are the forebears of modern “progressives”, would spread disinformation to further their disgusting agenda. Now things are so far gone, you don’t even have to go so far as to seek out some radical political group to witness this deceit. You need look no further than these “news” outlets and their coverage of the Trayvon Martin and Michael Brown cases (along with practically every other highly-publicized case of black crime). Regardless of the facts of the cases, they will always be framed with the underlying premise that “whites are oppressive and evil and must be stopped”. As you said:

    “People don’t remember the logical integrity of arguments. What lingers is the emotional impression.”

    Excellent article. Hope to read some more of your work in the future.

    • Posted September 27, 2014 at 8:22 pm | Permalink

      PTX: Thanks for the kudos. I got my backstory from a) someone who knew Harper Lee in New York in the 1950s, when she was trudging around with a typescript that her editors wanted to reshape; and b) a book called ‘Mockingbird,’ by Charles J. Shields, which came out 7 or 8 years ago. This biography—or really, publishing analysis—has been mainly marketed as a high-school text, but it is very revealing in its details about Lee’s editors and agents. Basically, they knew they had a hot item if only they put a contemporary “civil rights” spin on the narrative.

  3. James O'Meara
    Posted September 24, 2014 at 10:18 am | Permalink

    This is an excellent article in the true C-C style: ripping the lid off the seamy underbelly of our elite-manufactured pseudo-culture.

    We should always point out that even the $PLC can document only around 3,000 lynchings, over the 100 years since Reconstruction; a paltry 30 or so a year. If that still seems like a lot, consider that’ s over the whole country, not just a small town, and include White lynchees.

    Yes, White. Lynching was not a deranged manifestation of Southern inbred bigotry but the standard way for any community to “take the law into it’s own hands” in an age before police patrols, when judges rode “circuits” and might not appear for months, and local justice was corrupt.

    Remember, when “our” guys lynch someone (Nuremberg, Saddam Hussein) it’s “justice.”

    When you realize that the courts, politicians, and police all hate Us, lynching starts to seem pretty reasonable. Suppose an African socialist somehow took over the White House and began droning children in the Middle East? What would you do — call a cop?

    As another commenter alludes, this also raises the way the Elite want to insinuate into our minds that black/white crime “is a myth”. had a recent series of articles on Joyce Carol Oates’s pro-Micheal Brown twitter campaign where she denigrates “the other side of twitter, the one we [love the ‘we’] never see” that supposedly promotes this “myth”. The also document this meme in her writings, where racist White girls mistake angels — angels! — for black rapists.

    The reality, of course, is aw always exactly the opposite: white/black rape almost never happens, the overwhelming percentage is black/white. But “noticing” that would be ray-sist.

    • Jaego
      Posted September 24, 2014 at 8:11 pm | Permalink

      Yes, this schmaltzy tale is in the same league as “The Kalahari Typing School for Men” – tailored for White suckers who have terminal cases of PC.

      As Gore Vidal said, the three ugliest words in the English language are Joyce Carol Oates.

      • James O'Meara
        Posted September 25, 2014 at 11:02 am | Permalink

        Wow. That book was unknown to me, and I’m glad it was. As you say, looks like the sort of thing only an NPR-listening drone could conceive:

        “a charming account of the everyday challenges facing a female private detective in Botswana”

        I wonder if that includes AIDS and gang-rape?

        “Alexander McCall Smith was born in what is now Zimbabwe and taught law at the University of Botswana. He is now Professor of Medical Law at the University of Edinburgh. ”

        Wonder why he left the wonderful Mudderland? Another “refugee” to be taken in so as to embark on a career of chastising us for our “racism”?

        • Jaego
          Posted September 25, 2014 at 5:37 pm | Permalink

          Mudderland? That’s rich! Why James, you’re a man. Underneath those robes and that Prince Nez monocle you’re a normal guy. Do you drink beer too? Out of the bottle? A man must play many parts these days. Charles (Chuck?) Dexter Ward must be our model in this.

  4. R_Moreland
    Posted October 1, 2014 at 4:20 am | Permalink

    Interesting stuff here.

    Any chance of the original manuscript surfacing?

  5. Highland
    Posted October 2, 2014 at 3:29 pm | Permalink

    I really enjoyed this article,

    I guess those ProgTard Editors really screwed over Harper Lee.

  6. Posted July 12, 2015 at 1:15 am | Permalink

    In 2006 Jack Hamann published a book about the lynching of an Italian POW in Seattle in 1944 by black soldiers during a race riot at Fort Lawton. With this he suceeded in getting the court martials of the men involved posthumously expunged and their leader Edgar Snow, the man who served the most time in prison for manslaughter, honored in a city parade he missed because he died tof old age he night before. The title of Hamann’s book is “ON AMERICAN SOIL; Murder the Military and How Justice Became a Casualty of World War II”. The first book about this event was self-published by a local high school teacher from Seattle’s Italian community, Dominic Moreo. His book “Riot at Ft. Lawton, 1944” does not lay the blame for the lynching of Private Guigliemo Olivotto at the feet of the white MP who found him dead and hanging from a obsticle course rope the morning after the Italian POWs in the camp were attacked in their sleep by black soldiers from a supply unit. Jack Hamnn’s revisionist history of this event is now the accepted version of it. Hamann’s book came out 2 years after Moreo’s and he didn’t have the decency to cite it in his bibliography. Read this: and then read the Wikepedia entry for Fort Lawton Riot to understand how the exact opposite of what we are being told about race issues like this one in America is closer to the truth that what the media is presenting.

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